Posts by mashallah masoumi-ravandi:
admin Education antibacterial, antibiotic drugs, antibiotic medicines, Antibiotics, antimicrobial, antiviral drugs, bacteria, bacterial illness, bacterial resistance, resistance, viral illness, viruses
What are antibiotics?
— Antibiotics are medicines( pills, ointments, liquids, and injections) for treating infections caused by bacteria. For people with serious bacterial infections, antibiotics can save lives. But people use them far too often, even when they’re not needed. This is causing a very serious problem called antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance happens when a bacteria that has been exposed to an antibiotic, no longer is sensitive to that antibiotic. Because of this problem, doctors are having a harder and harder time treating infections. Experts worry that there will soon be infections that don’t respond to any antibiotics.
When are antibiotics helpful?
— Antibiotics can help people fight off infections caused by bacteria.
Some common bacterial infections that are treated with antibiotics include:
- Strep throat
- Pneumonia (an infection of the lungs)
- Bladder infections
- Infections you catch through sex, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia
When are antibiotics NOT helpful?
— Antibiotics do not work on infections caused by viruses.
- Antibiotics are NOT helpful for the common cold, because the common cold is caused by a virus.
- Antibiotics are NOT helpful for the flu, because the flu is caused by a virus. (People with the flu can be treated with medicines called antiviral medicines, which are different from antibiotics.)
- Antibiotics are NOT helpful for most cases of sore throat, because sore throat is usually caused by a virus. (Strep throat is an exception.)
- Antibiotics are NOT helpful for most cases of sinusitis, because sinusitis is usually caused by a virus. Sinusitis that starts out as a viral infection can turn into a bacterial infection, but that takes time. If you have had sinusitis symptoms for less than 10 days, you should not take antibiotics unless you also have a high fever.
- Antibiotics are NOT helpful for most cases of acute bronchitis (an infection in the airways leading to the lungs), because bronchitis is usually caused by a virus. If you have bronchitis and cough up green mucus, that does NOT mean you have a bacterial infection.
Even though antibiotics don’t work on infections caused by viruses, people sometimes believe that they do. That’s because they took antibiotics for a viral infection before and then got better. The problem is that those people would have gotten better with or without an antibiotic. When they get better with the antibiotic, they think that’s what cured them, when in reality the antibiotic had nothing to do with it.
What’s the harm in taking antibiotics even if they might not help? — There are many reasons you should not take antibiotics unless you absolutely need them:
- Antibiotics cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. They can even make it more likely that you will get a different kind of infection, such as yeast infection (if you are woman).
- Allergies to antibiotics are common. You can develop an allergy to an antibiotic, even if you have not had a problem with it before. Some allergies are just unpleasant, causing rashes and itching. But some can be very serious and even life-threatening. It is better to avoid any risk of an allergy, if the antibiotic wouldn’t help you anyway.
- Overuse of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance. Using antibiotics when they are not needed gives bacteria a chance to change, so that the antibiotics cannot hurt them later on. People who have infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria often have to be treated in the hospital with many different antibiotics. People can even die from these infections, because there is no antibiotic that will cure them.
When should I take antibiotics?
— You should take antibiotics only when a doctor or nurse prescribes them to you. You should never take antibiotics prescribed to someone else, and you should not take antibiotics that were prescribed to you for a previous illness. When prescribing an antibiotic, doctors and nurses have to carefully pick the right antibiotic for a particular infection. Not all antibiotics work on all bacteria.
If you do have an infection caused by a bacteria, your doctor or nurse might want to find out what that bacteria is, and which antibiotics can kill it. They do this by taking a “culture” of the bacteria and growing it in the lab. But it’s not possible to do a culture on someone who has already started an antibiotic. So if you start an antibiotic without input from a doctor or nurse it will be impossible to know if you have taken the right one.
What can I do to reduce antibiotic resistance? — Here are some things that can help reducing antibiotic resistance in your body:
- Do not pressure your doctor or nurse for antibiotics when he or she does not think you need them.
- If you are prescribed antibiotics, finish all of the medicine and take it exactly as directed. Never skip doses or stop taking the medicine without talking to your doctor or nurse.
- Do not give antibiotics that were prescribed to you to anyone else.
- Do not use antibacterial soaps or cleaning products. (Alcohol-based hand gels are fine to use.)
What if my doctor prescribes an antibiotic that did not work for me before?
— If an antibiotic did not work for you before, that does not mean it will never work for you. If you have used an antibiotic before and it did not work, tell your doctor. But keep in mind that the infection you had before might not have been caused by the same bacteria that you have now. The “best” antibiotic is the right one for the bacteria causing the infection, not for the person with the infection.
What if I am allergic to an antibiotic?
— If you had a bad reaction to an antibiotic, tell your doctor or nurse about it. But do not assume you are allergic unless your doctor or nurse tells you that you are.
Many people who think they are allergic to an antibiotic are wrong. If you get nauseous after taking an antibiotic, that does NOT mean you are allergic to it. Nausea is a common side effect of many antibiotics. If you are a woman and you get a yeast infection after taking an antibiotic, that does NOT mean you are allergic to it. Yeast infections are a common side effect of antibiotics.
Symptoms of antibiotic allergy can be mild and include a flat rash and itching. They can also be more serious and include:
- Hives – Hives are raised, red patches of skin that are usually very itchy
- Lip or tongue swelling
- Trouble swallowing or breathing
Serious allergy symptoms can start right after you start taking an antibiotic if you are very sensitive. Less serious symptoms, on the other hand, often start a day or more later.
If you think you are allergic to antibiotics, tell your doctor or nurse why you think so. Then trust him or her to know whether what you describe is a true allergy.
Super Resistant Bacteria
Dr M Masoumi Medical Services Ltd
316 Willow street
Truro, NS, B2N 5A4
Tel: 1 902 843 5495
Mon 08.30 13.00
Tue 08.30 13.00
Wed 08.30 11.30
Thu 08.30 13.00
Fri 08.30 13.00
Dr M Masoumi Medical Services Ltd
316 Willow street
Truro, NS, B2N 5A4
Tel: 1 902 843 5495
Mon 08.30 13.00
Tue 08.30 13.00
Wed 08.30 11.30
Thu 08.30 13.00
Fri 08.30 13.00
Flu vaccinations will be starting on Oct 11th. Just come to our office during working hours and your vaccination will be given immediately by one our staff.
Our practice (which is a teaching practice) accepts residents or medical students from different medical schools specially Dalhousie Medical School for their family practice training each year. This is an opportunity for the learners to be exposed to rural medicine and become familiar to the role of family physicians in a rural community setting.
Current Resident/Medical student:
Dr Dustin Richler MD
Second year family medicine resident from Dalhousie university (Moncton). Started Sept 18th 2017 for a period of three month.
admin Services actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, benign skin lesion, cryosurgery, cryotherapy, freezing, liquid nitrogen, seborrheic keratosis, skin cancer, skin cancer cryotherapy, skin lesion, skin lesion cryotherapy
Cryotherapy, also known as cryosurgery, is a commonly used in-office procedure for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant skin lesions.
The mechanism of destruction in cryotherapy is necrosis, which results from the freezing and thawing of cells. Treated areas re-epithelialize. Adverse effects of cryotherapy are usually minor and short-lived.
By 1990, 87% of dermatologists used cryotherapy in their practice. The general advantages of cryotherapy are its ease of use, its low cost, and its good cosmetic results. Most skin cancers are treated with excision or other destructive procedures, such as electrodesiccation and curettage. Superficial basal cell skin cancers and Bowen disease can be treated with cryotherapy.
Recurrence rates for primary basal cell carcinoma vary with treatment modality. The 5-year recurrence rate for cryotherapy may be as low as 7.5% if lesions are chosen judiciously. This percentage compares favorably with published recurrence rates following other procedures.
Published rates include surgical excision, 10.1%; curettage and electrodesiccation, 7.7%; radiation therapy, 8.7%; and all non-Mohs modalities, 8.7%. Well-circumscribed tumors are most suitable for cryotherapy. The indolent local growth of these well-circumscribed tumors accounts for the high cure rates quoted in the literature.
Cryosurgery (Liquid Nitrogen) Treatment & Post Procedure Care
What is Cryosurgery?
Cryosurgery is a technique for removing skin lesions that primarily involves the surface of the skin, such as warts, seborrheic keratosis, skin tags or actinic keratosis.
It is a quick method of removing the lesion with minimal scarring. The liquid nitrogen needs to be applied long enough to freeze the affected skin. By freezing the skin, a blister is created underneath the lesion. Ideally, as the new skin forms underneath the blister, the abnormal skin on the roof of the blister peels off. Occasionally, if the lesion is very thick (such as a large wart), only the surface is blistered off. The base or residual lesion may need to be frozen at another visit. It takes about one to three weeks for the scab to fall off, which is when the new layer of skin has formed under the blister. Areas of thinner skin, such as the face, may heal a little faster.
What to Expect Over the Next Few Weeks:
During Treatment – Area being treated will sting, burn, and then possibly itch.
Immediately After Treatment – Area will be red, sore, and swollen.
Next Day – Blister will form and tenderness starts to subside.
Apply a Band-Aid if necessary.
7 Days – Surface is dark red/brown and scab-like.
Apply Vaseline® or an antibacterial ointment, such as Polysporin®,
2 to 4 Weeks – The surface starts to peel off. This may be encouraged gently during bathing, when the scab is softened. Do not pick.
No makeup should be applied until area is fully healed.
The goal of cryosurgery is to achieve a blister. Most patients will have a blister forming following the treatment, which can be a bit painful. But sometimes, the blister is so thin that it can’t be seen and may have minimal swelling. Occasionally, a blood blister forms that can be quite dramatic but is harmless.
Rarely, the blister may become infected. When this happens, the blister becomes unusually tender, the fluid becomes cloudy, and the redness around it becomes more extensive (and may even form streaks). If this happens, contact our office.
Some lesions, especially those on the face, may leave a slight pale discoloration.
True scarring, involving the deeper layers of the skin, is unlikely.
How to Take Care of the Skin after Cryosurgery
A Band-Aid can be used for larger blisters or blisters in areas that are more likely to be traumatized, such as the fingers and toes. If the area becomes dry or crusted, an ointment (Vaseline®, Bacitracin®, or Polysporin®) can be applied.
Cleanse the area gently with a mild soap cleanser (i.e. Dove) and cool water
Pat the area dry with a lint-free cloth and apply an ointment
(Vaseline®, Bacitracin®, or Polysporin®).
Avoid glycolic acids, Vitamin C, scrubs, and creams for 7 to 10 days.
If approved by your Provider, you may bathe, swim, exercise, and otherwise follow all of your normal activities.
The area may get wet while bathing, but swimming or hot tub use should be avoided for one week following a treatment or while the skin is open.
In general, anaesthesia is unnecessary. Although, for very small children, we will sometimes suggest applying a topical anaesthetic cream at home before the office visit.
The most common adverse effects are pain, swelling/blistering, potential for infection, and possible pale discoloration of the skin after it heals.
COMMON COLD CAUSES
The common cold is a group of illnesses with similar symptoms caused by a number of viruses. Rhinoviruses (has more than 100 different strains or varieties) cause the greatest number of colds. A person can have a cold multiple times throughout his or her lifetime because of subsequent infection with the large number of other viruses or viral strains that can cause this illness. The average adult experiences two to three colds per year, while children average 8 to 12 colds per year.
Colds are primarily transmitted from person-to-person via hands. Less often, the virus can be transmitted by touching a surface, sneezing, or coughing.
Direct contact — cold virus typically is carried on the hands. The virus may remain alive on the skin and capable of infecting another person for at least two hours.
Infection from particles on surfaces — Some cold viruses can live on surfaces (such as a counter top, door handle, or phone) for several hours.
Breathing in viral particles — Droplets containing viruses can be breathed, coughed, or sneezed into the air by a person with a cold. The virus can be transmitted to others if another person is standing close (a few feet) and the droplet touches that person’s eye, nose, or mouth. Covering the mouth while coughing or sneezing reduces this risk.
Most cold viruses are not spread by saliva. Thus, kissing itself is not likely to transmit the common cold, but close direct contact can. Colds are not caused by cold climates or being exposed to cold air.
COMMON COLD SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
— The common cold usually causes nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing. A sore throat may be present on the first day but usually resolves quickly. If a cough occurs, it generally develops on about the fourth or fifth day of symptoms, typically when congestion and runny nose are resolving.
COMMON COLD COMPLICATIONS
— In most cases, colds do not cause serious illness or complications. Most colds last for three to seven days, although many people continue to have symptoms (coughing, sneezing, congestion) for up to two weeks.
Sinusitis is one of the more common complications of cold, which is usually caused by viruses and rarely (about 2 percent of the time) by bacteria. The signs and symptoms of viral and bacterial sinusitis can be similar. Having thick or yellow to green-colored nasal discharge does not mean that bacterial sinusitis has developed; discolored nasal discharge is a normal phase of the common cold.
Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis, may develop following a cold.
Infection of the middle ear, or otitis media, can accompany or follow a cold.
The influenza virus, which causes the flu, can also cause features similar to those of a cold. However, the flu usually causes other signs and symptoms (fever, body aches) and is more severe than a cold.
COMMON COLD TREATMENT
— Most treatments are aimed at relieving some of the symptoms of the cold, but do not shorten or cure the cold. Antibiotics are not useful for treating the common cold; antibiotics are only used to treat illnesses caused by bacteria, not viruses.
Cold symptoms usually resolve over time, even without any treatment.
Cold symptoms treatments
Runny nose and nasal congestion — Runny nose and congestion may improve with the use of nasal inhalers. Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent, available by prescription) may relieve runny nose and sneezing while cromolyn (NasalCrom, a non-prescription medicine) may relieve runny nose, cough, and sneezing. Medications that contain a combination of an antihistamine and a decongestant may also help nasal symptoms.
Products that contain decongestants alone (without an antihistamine) such as pseudoephedrine and oxymetazoline (a nasal spray also called Afrin) may also give temporary relief of nasal congestion. However, decongestant nasal sprays should never be used for more than two to three days; use for more than three days use can worsen congestion.
Saline nasal sprays can also be helpful to relieve runny nose and congestion.
Sore throat and headache — Sore throat and headache are best treated with a mild pain reliever such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent such as ibuprofen(Advil) or naproxen (Motrin or Aleve). Gargling with salt water would help with sore throat as well.
Cough — Common cough medicine ingredients include guaifenesin and dextromethorphan; these are often combined with other medications in over-the-counter cold formulas. Dextromethorphan is the best medication for cough. Other cough medications such as guaifenesin have little benefit for cough.
Antibiotics — Antibiotics should not be used to treat an uncomplicated common cold. As noted above, colds are caused by viruses. Antibiotics treat bacterial, not viral infections.
Alternative treatments — A number of alternative products, including vitamin C and herbal products such as echinacea, are advertised to treat or prevent the common cold. While none of these treatments is likely to cause harm, none have been proven to be effective in clinical trials; their use is not recommended. Certain products, such as nasal gels that contain zinc (eg, Zicam), have been associated with a permanent loss of smell and thus are also not recommended.
— Hand washing . Hands should be wet with water and plain soap, and rubbed together for 15 to 30 seconds. Special attention should be paid to the fingernails, between the fingers, and the wrists. Hands should be rinsed thoroughly, and dried with a single-use towel.
Alcohol-based hand rubs are a good alternative for disinfecting hands if a sink is not available.
Hands should be washed before preparing food and eating and after coughing, blowing the nose, or sneezing.
In addition, tissues should be used to cover the mouth when sneezing or coughing. Sneezing/coughing into the sleeve of one’s clothing (at the inner elbow) is another means of containing sprays of saliva and secretions and does not contaminate the hands.